Download Animals and the Environment (First Step Nonfiction) by Jennifer Boothroyd PDF

By Jennifer Boothroyd

An interesting examine the ways in which animals have interaction with humans and crops.

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Example text

If the abundance of elements in the Sun is plotted against the abundance of elements in chondrite meteorites, the plot forms almost a perfect straight line. Other meteorites and especially planetary materials do not have comparable abundances to the Sun. This makes sense, since they are neighbors in the solar system:The material in this part of the early nebula probably did not differ much between the orbits of Earth and Mars. The planets must have grown from collisions of matter in the early solar system nebula.

This line of reasoning prompts some scientists to look for processes in early planetary formation that can, in the case of Mars, place more iron and less aluminum in the mantle relative to the core. A slightly different process of core formation can easily explain the difference in iron content. The silicate minerals left behind are less dense and so float on top of the iron, forming the mantle. If Mars had more oxygen or more water present as it formed, more of its iron would stay in the silicate mantle as iron oxide, and less would be reduced to iron Planetary Evolution and the Martian Interior metal and sink into the core.

All the planets in the solar system seem to be thoroughly differentiated internally, with the possible exception of Pluto and Charon. What data there is for these two bodies indicates that they may not be fully differentiated. Some bodies in the solar system, though, are not differentiated; the material they are made of is still in a more primitive state, and the body may not be spherical. Undifferentiated bodies in the asteroid belt have their metal component still mixed through their silicate portions; it has not separated and flowed into the interior to form a core.

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