By David G. Andrews

A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This variation has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now incorporates a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in past chapters, giving the scholar a large figuring out of a few of the actual ideas underlying this most crucial and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built quite often within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The ebook is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.

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**Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition**

**Example text**

This is subject to a gravitational force g m downwards, where its mass m = ρ A z and g is the gravitational acceleration (assumed constant throughout this book). This force must be balanced by the difference between the upward pressure force p(z) A on the bottom of the cylinder and the downward pressure force p(z + z) A on the top. We therefore have gρ by cancelling A z = p(z) A − p(z + z) A; A and using the Taylor expansion p(z + z) ≈ p(z) + dp dz z, we get the equation for hydrostatic balance, dp = −gρ.

03), water vapour plays a crucial role in weather and climate processes. 1. 33 Fig. 5 Moisture in the atmosphere The phase transition between liquid and vapour, portrayed in a schematic temperature–pressure diagram. The curve indicates the temperature variation of the saturation vapour pressure. and liquid phases, with important chemical reactions that lead to the depletion of polar ozone (see Chapter 6). In the remainder of this chapter we consider the precipitation properties of water vapour; these result from the physical fact that, at terrestrial atmospheric temperatures and pressures, water undergoes phase changes between the vapour, liquid and solid states.

The volume mixing ratios are fairly uniform throughout the lower and middle atmosphere for well-mixed gases that are mostly chemically inert, namely N2 , O2 , CO2 and Ar. gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/). The unit of molar mass is g mol−1 or equivalently kg kmol−1 . 3 Hydrostatic balance For an atmosphere at rest, in static equilibrium, the net forces acting on any small portion of air must balance. 1. This is subject to a gravitational force g m downwards, where its mass m = ρ A z and g is the gravitational acceleration (assumed constant throughout this book).