By Jeremy Colls
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The second again involves the injection of ammonia or urea, but this time at lower temperatures (250–350 °C) in the presence of a catalyst such as vanadium pentoxide or titanium dioxide. 4NH3 ϩ 4NO ϩ O2 : 4N2 ϩ 6H2O (typically 80–90% efficient) This process is expensive; it has been fitted to about 150 plants in Germany, the US and Japan, but is not used in the UK. There may be up to 5 ppm of ammonia slip, which can in turn be controlled with transition metal ions in the catalyst washcoat. The selective catalytic converter is upstream of any dust removal equipment, so the operating conditions for such a catalyst are poor, with very high dust loadings and acid gas concentrations, and the pore structure can get blocked with sulphates and fly ash.
Physically-distinct particles having a different density to the coal, a process such as froth flotation can be used to separate the relatively dense flakes of pyrites from the powdered coal. Reductions of 80% in S content can be achieved, but 40% is more typical and this process is not widely used. Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD). Chemical engineering plant can be built into or added onto power stations to remove most of the sulphur dioxide from the combustion (flue) gases before they are exhausted to atmosphere.
With oil it is usually present in large volumes, overlying the oil deposit, that have been exploited as a fuel in their own right. 6 does not include renewables such as wind turbines or biofuels. 2 toe in India. Developing countries also offer very different fuel combustion profiles, especially in the domestic sector. Whereas domestic energy supply in developed countries is likely to be from burning gas in a centralised boiler for a central heating system, developing countries are much more likely to be using fuels such as kerosene, wood, roots, crop residues or animal dung.