By Herbert W. Meyer
Written with a view to be understood through the non-technical reader who's eager about the beginning of the entire electric and electromagnetic units that encompass him, this historical past additionally presents a handy compendium of knowledge for these acquainted with and magnetic fields. The e-book strikes alongside at a fast speed, because it needs to whether it is to hide the big proliferation of advancements that experience happened over the past hundred years or so. the writer has struck a plausible stability among the human aspect of his tale, introducing these biographical information that aid increase it, and its technical facet, explaining theories and "how issues paintings" the place this turns out acceptable. He additionally achieves a stability in recounting the invention of simple medical rules and their technological applications—the myriad of units and innovations that make the most of power and knowledge in electromagnetic shape. certainly, one of many vital topics of the e-book is the shut and reciprocal courting among technology and know-how, among conception and perform. sooner than nearly 1840, the only medical investigations of electric and magnetic phenomena have been mostly advert hoc and observational, and basically no know-how in accordance with them existed. Afterwards, the medical explorations grew to become extra programmatic and mathematical, and technical purposes and innovations started to be produced in nice abundance. In go back, this know-how paid its debt to natural technological know-how by way of offering it with a sequence of measuring tools and different study units that allowed it to develop in parallel. even if this booklet reports the early discoveries, from the magnetic lodestone and electrostatic amber of antiquity to Galvani's frog's legs and Franklin's kite-and-key of the 1700s, its significant emphasis is at the post-1840 advancements, because the following bankruptcy titles will determine: Early Discoveries—Electrical Machines and Experiments with Static Electricity—Voltaic electrical energy, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Galvanometers, Ampere, Biot and Savart, Ohm—Faraday and Henry—Direct present Dynamos and Motors—Improvements in Batteries, Electrostatic Machines, and different Older Devices—Electrical tools, legislation, and Definitions of Units—The electrical Telegraph—The Atlantic Cable—The Telephone—Electric Lighting—Alternating Currents—Electric Traction—Electromagnetic Waves, Radio, Facsimile, and Television—Microwaves, Radar, Radio Relay, Coaxial Cable, Computers—Plasmas, Masers, Lasers, gasoline Cells, Piezoelectric Crystals, Transistors—X-Rays, Radioactivity, Photoelectric influence, constitution of the Atom, Spectra.
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Before the publication of however, others peated them. had tcarned bis experiments, of Gatvani’s discovery and re- VOLTA AND THE VOLTAIC PILE Among those who hecame interested in this matter was Atessandro Votta (1745-X27), professor of natural history at the University of Pavia, wbose name was mentioned previousty in connection with the etectrophorus. Votta waz convinced by his experiments that the source of etectricity was not in the nerves or muscles but in the met& Gatvani, however, showed that it was unnecessary to use met& at att.
Nollct, Beccaria, and Franklin used two threads hung close together, which separated when electrified. It is not clear who invented the pith bal1 electroscope, but such instruments were in use by the middle of the eighteenth Century. Daniel Gralath, of Danzig, about this time, had constructed an electrical balance. William T. Henley, in 1772, invented the quadrant electrometer, using a pith bal1 suspended at the tenter of a graduated arc. By far the most important device of this kind was the torsion balance, invented about the year 1784 by Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1807).
THE SPEED OF ELECTKICITY ‘The Leyde” jar provided a new and useful tool for carrying on electrical research, especially experiments in the transmission of electricity. By this time the use of wires as conductors was commcmplace. In F r a n c e electricity from charged Leyden jars was transmittcd a distance of 2% miles. P i e r r e C h a r l e s Lemmonier, the French astronomer, att e m p t e d t o measure the velocity of electricity but fond that the time required to travel a distance of 5700 feet was inappreciable.